About ferns

 

In the plant kingdom we find a major division of vascular, spore bearing plants, called the Pteridophyta (ferns & fern allies). 

In evolutionary terms the Pteridophyta are put in between the Bryophyta (mosses and liverworts) and the Spermatophyta (seed-bearing plants). The Pteridophyta differ from the Bryophyta by the development of a vascular system , they contain elongated cells in the stalks for the transport of water and nutrient solutions. They differ from seed-bearing plants by the absence of flowers and by the production of spores.

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1. Rhizome

The stem or rhizome is the part of a fern from which the fronds (leaves) and roots grow. The primary roots (growing directly from the embryo) take care of the initial anchoring and uptake of water & nutrients for the young fern. They are replaced by secondary adventitious roots responsible for anchoring and further uptake of water and nutrients. The secondary roots grow continuously with the stem.

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1. Vegetative reproduction
Gemmae.

In some ferns the rachis produces a vegetative bud or gemmae, these ferns are called proliferous. When this bud falls on the ground a new plant develops, as in Tectaria gemmifera.

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